User: Student-20-39
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Goals/ Ideal Situations

SMART Action Plans

History of Autism timeline
SMART plan
S: In her 2019 book “Autism” Happé has another way of perceiving a diagnosis when she describes it as a constellation: “Autistic people, with a diagnosis, may locate themselves anywhere in the resulting three-dimensional space. Their exact location would further vary with context and across the lifespan.” (Fletcher-Watson and Happé, 2019, p.34))
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  • T: None ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 2019
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Last modified: 25 Jul 2022, 10:21 p.m.
SMART plan
S: 2010 - Happe’s ‘study suggesting that Lorna Wing and Judith Gould’s Triad of Impairments may have “fractionable” causes, at the genetic, neurological and cognitive levels.’ (Feinstein, 2010, p.201)
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  • T: None ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 2010
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Last modified: 25 Jul 2022, 10:14 p.m.
SMART plan
S: “1986 Temple Grandin publishes Emergence: Labeled Autistic, her first book about the expereince of having autism. (Donvan and Zucker 2016, p.558)
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  • T: None ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1986
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Last modified: 25 Jul 2022, 9:31 p.m.
SMART plan
S: 1956 - Bernard and Gloria’s Rimland’s son, Mark is born. Mark, exhibited challenging behaviours which Rimland self-diagnosed through research as autism.
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  • T: None ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1956
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Last modified: 20 Jul 2022, 9:58 p.m.
SMART plan
S: 2004 Dan Grover and Alex Plank set up Wrong Planet.net: The largest online community for autism. the site includes a chatroom, a forum, and articles describing how to deal with daily issues. (Plank, 2022)
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  • T: 1 Jul 2022 ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 2004
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Last modified: 25 Jul 2022, 9:48 p.m.
SMART plan
S: 1992 - The WHO published ICD-10 officially recognizing asperger's syndrome for the 1st time
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  • T: None ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1992
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Last modified: 20 Jul 2022, 9:48 p.m.
SMART plan
S: “1985 Psychologists Simon Baron-Cohen, Alan Leslie, and Uta Frith publish a landmark study on autism and “Theory of Mind”, the idea that individuals are aware that others possess mental states distinct from their own. People with autism, they find, often fail to employ a Theory of Mind.” (Donvan and Zucker 2016, p.558)
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  • T: None ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1985
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Last modified: 24 Jul 2022, 4:13 p.m.
SMART plan
S: 1992 - Donna Williams publishes “Nobody Nowhere. The Remarkable Autobiography of an Autistic Girl”
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  • T: None ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1992
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Last modified: 24 Jul 2022, 4:18 p.m.
SMART plan
S: “1981 Ivor Lovaas publishes Teaching Developmentally Disabled Children: The ME Book, the first hands-on guide for parents and professionals on the use of ABA to treat children with autism. (Donvan and Zucker 2016, p.558)
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  • T: None ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1981
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Last modified: 24 Jul 2022, 4:05 p.m.
SMART plan
S: 1989 - Two diagnostic tools developed. - the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI) devised by Ann Le Couteur, Michael Rutter, and Cathy Lord and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) - Lord C, Rutter M, Goode S, Heemsbergen J, Jordan H, Mawhood L, Schopler Eonline wiki quote ‘both extensively used throughout the world (Feinstein,2010, p.183)
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  • T: None ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1989
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URL : https://www.autism.org.uk/advice-a…
Last modified: 24 Jul 2022, 4:10 p.m.

SMART plan
S: Late 1980s Simon Baron - Cohen and the Cambridge Team designed the CHAT - checklist for Autism in Toddlers
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  • T: None ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1980
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URL : https://www.autismresearchcentre.c…
Last modified: 24 Jul 2022, 10:51 a.m.

SMART plan
S: 1981 - When Lorna Wing coins the term in her paper published that year - ‘Asperger’s syndrome: A Clinical Account,”’ - she hypothesizes that it is not a separate condition to autism. (She had discussed the matter with Asperger when he was visiting London in the late 1970s (Feinstein ,2010, p.179) “Asperger, despite listing numerous similarities, considered his syndrome to be different from Kanner’s,” Wing reported. “We cordially agreed to differ.” (Donvan and Zucker 2016, p.324)
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  • T: 1 Jan 1981 ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1981
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Last modified: 24 Jul 2022, 4:01 p.m.
SMART plan
S: 1980 - Diagnostic and Statistical manual of mental disorders - III published by the American Psychiatric Association. 1st time was introduced the term : ‘pervasive developmental disorder ’for the general category of autism and related conditions'(Feinstein, 2010,p.178)
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  • T: 1 Jan 1980 ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1980
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URL : https://psychiatry.org/psychiatris…
Last modified: 24 Jul 2022, 3:53 p.m.

SMART plan
S: 1980 - Eric Shopler and Robert Reichler developed CARS - the Childhood Autism Rating Scale - designed to help differentiation from other developmental disorders…At the same time they were developing PEP - Pyschoeducational Profile. This was for assessment purposes. So one was for diagnosis and one was for assessment.(Feinstein, 2010, p178)
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  • T: 1 Jan 1980 ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1980
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Last modified: 24 Jul 2022, 3:48 p.m.
SMART plan
S: 1979 - The WHO recognized autism for the 1st time when it published the ICD-9 [ International Classification of Diseases (ICD)]
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  • T: 1 Jan 1979 ~ achieved on: None
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Last modified: 2 Jun 2022, 9:04 p.m.
SMART plan
S: 1979 - Judith Gould and Lorna Wing, carry out the Camberwell Study. “....supports their argument that autism should be described as a “spectrum.” (Donvan and Zucker 2016, p.557)
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  • T: 1 Jan 1979 ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1979
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Last modified: 24 Jul 2022, 3:31 p.m.
SMART plan
S: 1977 - Dr Susan Folstein and Professor Michael Rutter undertake the first systematic study of twins with autism. They discovered the ‘compound phenotype’(Feinstein, 2010, p.150) and thus “significantly blistering the understanding of autism as a condition with a strong genetic component.” (Donvan and Zucker 2016, p. 557)
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  • T: 1 Jan 1977 ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1977
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Last modified: 24 Jul 2022, 3:28 p.m.
SMART plan
S: 1974 - Mary Coleman, American neurologist, her research with brain scanning equipment showed that autism could be divided into a number of subtypes (Feinstein, 2010,P.147)
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  • T: 1 Jan 1974 ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1974
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URL : https://global.oup.com/academic/pr…
Last modified: 24 Jul 2022, 3:24 p.m.

SMART plan
S: “1993 Self-advocate Jim Sinclair delivers a speech titled “Don’t Mourn for Us,” marking the birth of a movement for self-advocacy by people with autism. The speech lays the foundation for a philosophy that opposes attempts to cure autism, later dubbed “neurodiversity”. (Donvan and Zucker 2016, p.559)
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  • T: 1 Jan 1973 ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1993
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Last modified: 25 Jul 2022, 9:36 p.m.
SMART plan
S: 1962 - A group of parents in Britain founds what will become the National Autistic Society, the first autism organization.” (Donvan and Zucker 2016,p.555)
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  • T: None ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1973
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URL : https://www.autism.org.uk/
Last modified: 24 Jul 2022, 10:13 p.m.

SMART plan
S: 1971 - Lorna Wing publishes “Autistic children: a guide for parents and professionals… In many parts of the world this acted as a powerful counter to Bruno Bettelheim’s 1967 book…” (Feinstein, 2010, p.139)
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  • T: 1 Jan 1971 ~ achieved on: None
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URL : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lorn…
Last modified: 24 Jul 2022, 2:15 p.m.

SMART plan
S: 1972 - Eric Shopler developed the TEACCH: “Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children” (Donvan and Zucker, 2016, p.235).
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  • T: 1 Jan 1972 ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1972
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Last modified: 24 Jul 2022, 3:14 p.m.
SMART plan
S: 1971 Dr Israel Kolvin’s paper provided evidence that autism and schizophrenia were different conditions. This became known as a landmark study. (Feinstein 2010, p.143-4)
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  • T: 1 Jan 1971 ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1971
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Last modified: 24 Jul 2022, 1:32 p.m.
SMART plan
S: In the 1966 - Uta Frith, 'came to make her own journey out to the [Sybil Elgar School] on florence Road, to carry out an experiemnt whose reuslts would rank among the most intriguing and influential of its era.' (Donvan and Zucker, 2016, p.289)
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  • T: 1 Jan 1970 ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1966
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Last modified: 24 Jul 2022, 2:07 p.m.
SMART plan
S: 1967 - Bruno Bettelheim writes The Empty Fortress: Infantile autism and the birth of self. Following a psychogenic approach, he blamed parents for their child’s autism.(Feinstein,2010, p.54-7)
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  • T: None ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1967
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Last modified: 24 Jul 2022, 1:44 p.m.
SMART plan
S: 1966-7 - Dr Victor Lotter, Medical Research Council Social Psychiatry Unit at London Institute of Psychiatry. Lotter published the first epidemiological study of autism in children of all levels of intelligence in a large population (Feinstein, 2010, p.80).
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  • T: 1 Jan 1967 ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1967
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Last modified: 24 Jul 2022, 1:15 p.m.
SMART plan
S: 1964 - Bernard Rimland’s book Infantile Autism is published, includes references to ‘Asperger’s Syndrome’.
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  • T: 1 Jan 1964 ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1964
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Last modified: 24 Jul 2022, 12:58 p.m.
SMART plan
S: 1962 - Dr Gerhard Bosch, German Psychiatrist wrote Der Fruhkindliche Autismus …. His book emphasized language Impairment and Feinstein describes him as a ‘true pioneer of booth autism and Asperger’s syndrome’ (Feinstein, 2010, p79).
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  • T: 1 Jan 1962 ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1962
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URL : https://books.google.pt/books?id=1…
Last modified: 10 Aug 2022, 9:13 p.m.

SMART plan
S: 1961 - Ivar Lovaas was a Psychologist and started as assistant professor at UCLA. He developed a behaviouristic approach using ‘Reinforcers and Aversives’ - This came to be known as Applied behavioral Analysis (ABA). (Feinstein, 2010, p128)
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  • T: None ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1961
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URL : https://www.autismspeaks.org/appli…
Last modified: 18 Jul 2022, 8:43 p.m.

SMART plan
S: 1961 - Nesnidanova and Fiala in Czechoslovakia stated categorically: "We validated, through the study of our cases and the literature, the authenticity of the differential diagnosis of Kanner's early infantile autism from childhood schizophrenia." (Feinstein, 2010, p40)
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  • T: 1 Jan 1961 ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1961
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Last modified: 24 Jul 2022, 12:53 p.m.
SMART plan
S: “1961 - British child psychiatrist Mildred Creak publishes “Nine Points,” an attempt to define the criteria for diagnosing “Schizophrenic Syndrome in Childhood,” one of many competing descriptions for clusters of autistic traits.” (Donvan and Zucker, 2016, p.555)
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  • T: None ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1961
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Last modified: 18 Jul 2022, 6:27 p.m.
SMART plan
S: 1961. Music Therapy: Dr Paul Nordoff and Dr Clive Robbins....As an experienced composer and gifted pianist, Nordoff brought new resources and techniques to meet the special needs of a wide range of disabled children. (Feinstein, 2010, p.102)
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  • T: None ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1960
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URL : https://steinhardt.nyu.edu/nordoff…
Last modified: 24 Jul 2022, 10:12 p.m.

SMART plan
S: “1965 Sybil Elgar, the first autistic specific teacher, set up the first school for autistic children in the UK in the basement of her North London home.. (Donvan and Zucker, 2016, p.275) -Montessori trained -she used a structured approach, simple instructions and visual aids. (Feinstein,2010, p.87)
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  • T: 1 Jan 1960 ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1965
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Last modified: 18 Jul 2022, 5:58 p.m.
SMART plan
S: “1963 British psychologists Beate Hermelin and Neil O’Connor conduct experiments, the results of which strongly suggest a biological rather than a psychogenic basis to autism. They will continue this research through 1970. (Donvan and Zucker, 2016, p.555)
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  • T: 1 Jan 1963 ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1963
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Last modified: 18 Jul 2022, 6:06 p.m.
SMART plan
S: 1965 - Michael Rutter’s (founder of child psychiatry in the UK) studies indicated that language impairment was an important feature of autism. “Rutter’s views were strictly developmental and neurological and they exerted a great influence on fellow professionals.” (Feinstein, 2010, p.78)
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  • T: 1 Jan 1960 ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1965
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Last modified: 24 Jul 2022, 10:25 p.m.
SMART plan
S: 1959 - Lauretta Bender, ‘....was an old-fashioned psychiatrist’ (Feinstein, 2010, p.43). Working at Bellevue Hospital, NY. She treated schizophrenic and autistic patients with electric shock treatment and LSD.
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  • T: 1 Jan 1959 ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1959
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Last modified: 18 Jul 2022, 2:12 p.m.
SMART plan
S: 1956 - Kanner became irritated by how his term was being abused, so much so that he ‘decided to narrow the criteria for early infantile autism to two main ones: aloneness and obsessive desire for sameness, removing the language abnormalities. (Feinstein, 2010, p.47)
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  • T: None ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1956
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Last modified: 22 Jul 2022, 1:59 p.m.
SMART plan
S: 1956-7 - A number of studies of autistic twins points to what B.Rimland will say points to ‘the biological etiology of the disease’ (Feinstein, 2010, p.48)
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  • T: None ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1957
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Last modified: 18 Jul 2022, 6:30 p.m.
SMART plan
S: Child Psychologist: Dr Carl Fenichel who founded the League Treatment Centre, Brooklyn, NY. Fenichel always believed autism had a biological cause. (Feinstein, 2010, p.52)
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  • T: None ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1953
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URL : https://www.leaguecenter.org/
Last modified: 18 Jul 2022, 1:26 p.m.

SMART plan
S: “1988 Dustin Hoffman stars in the movie Rain Man, which puts autism on the map like never before.” (Donvan and Zucker, 2016, p.558)
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  • T: 1 Jan 1988 ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1988
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Last modified: 25 Jul 2022, 6:11 p.m.
SMART plan
S: 1949 Jeanne Simons, Belgian born. Feinstein writes : She “started work with the first group of autistic children in Children’s House in Washington…” (Feinstein, 2010, p.50)
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  • T: 1 Jan 1949 ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1949
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Last modified: 18 Jul 2022, 2:01 p.m.
SMART plan
S: 1949 - Bergman and Escalona noted ‘unusual responses to the sensory environment in children’ (Feinstein, 2010, p.49) ...[and offered the first version of a sensory hypothesis]
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  • T: None ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1949
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URL : https://pep-web.org/browse/documen…
Last modified: 22 Jul 2022, 1:50 p.m.

SMART plan
S: “1942 In a letter to Mary Triplett, Leo Kanner theorizes that Donald and several other children with similar behaviors have a disorder not previously recognized. Like Asperger, he too borrows the word “autistic” from Bleuler, calling this new disorder “Autistic Disturbances of Affective Contact.” (Donvan and Zucker, 2016 p.554)
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  • T: None ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1947
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Last modified: 18 Jul 2022, 12:49 p.m.
SMART plan
S: “1944 - Hans Aspberger publishes his postgraduate thesis, “Die ‘Autistischen Psychopathen’ Im Kindesalter.” Largely overlooked for most of the next four decades, iot will lead to the recognition of Asperger’s syndrome.
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  • T: 1 Jan 1944 ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1944
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URL : https://blogs.uoregon.edu/autismhi…
Last modified: 18 Jul 2022, 2 p.m.

SMART plan
S: “1943 - Leo Kanner publishes “Autistic Disturbances of Affective Contact,” the clinical account of eleven children that will lead to the recognition of autism as a distinct syndrome.” (Donvan and Zucker, 2016 p.554)
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  • T: None ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1943
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Last modified: 18 Jul 2022, 11:54 a.m.
SMART plan
S: “Hans Asperger, an Austrian pediatrician, delivers a talk at Vienna’s University Hospital describing boys seen in his clinic who exhibit social deficit combined with strong intelligence. Influenced by Bleuler’s use of autistic, he borrows the term to identifya syndrome he calls autistic psychopathy. It is the first time it is used in its modern sense.” (Donvan and Zucker, 2016 p.554)
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  • T: None ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1938
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Last modified: 18 Jul 2022, 11:21 a.m.
SMART plan
S: Leo Kanner’s internationally renowned book “Child Psychiatry” was published. Feinstein notes a ‘brief reference to “autism” - in the sense Bleuler used it - as a disorder of the mother - child relationship.” (Feinstein, 2010, p.22)
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  • T: None ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1935
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URL : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leo_…
Last modified: 18 Jul 2022, 11:15 a.m.

SMART plan
S: Earl: Studied a group of adolescents who developed ‘catatonic’ behaviour - they had major similarities to what we would call autistic features today.
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  • T: None ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1934
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Last modified: 18 Jul 2022, 6:34 p.m.
SMART plan
S: On September 9, Donald Triplett is born to Mary and Beamon Triplett of Forest, Mississippi. (Donvan and Zucker, 2016 p.552)
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  • T: None ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1933
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Last modified: 18 Jul 2022, 11:07 a.m.
SMART plan
S: Late 1920s - Stenoa diagnosed developmental infantile psychosis
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  • T: None ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1928
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Last modified: 18 Jul 2022, 11 a.m.
SMART plan
S: Dr Grunya Efimovna Sukhareva published an account of “schizoid personality disorder of childhood”.
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  • R: False
  • T: None ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1926
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URL : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grun…
Last modified: 17 Feb 2022, 7:01 a.m.

SMART plan
S: Dr Lightner Witmer, founder of clinical psychology. A detailed case report of a psychotic child….exhibiting features of what today we would call an autistic child
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  • M: N/A
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  • T: None ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1920
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URL : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ligh…
Last modified: 18 Feb 2022, 3:44 p.m.

SMART plan
S: The term ‘Autism; from the Greek ‘autos’ meaning self used by Dr Eugen Bleuler, director of Burgholzi Hospital, Zurich.
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  • T: None ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1911
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URL : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euge…
Last modified: 18 Jul 2022, 10:46 a.m.

SMART plan
S: Sancte de Sanctis, Italy. In the field of abnormal child development children were described with what we now recognize as autistic behaviour
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  • M: N/A
  • R: False
  • T: None ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1906
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URL : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sant…
Last modified: 17 Feb 2022, 6:53 a.m.

SMART plan
S: 1801 - Jean-Marc Gaspard Itard (French doctor) documented cases we now recognize as autistic behaviour (Donvan and Zucker, 2016, p.48))
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  • R: False
  • T: None ~ achieved on: 1 Jan 1801
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URL : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean…
Last modified: 18 Jul 2022, 2 p.m.

General places to get help (Organisations/resources)
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Sensory aids
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Visual aids
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Board created on:20 Aug 2021, 4:10 p.m.